mellowd CCIE blog A CCIE blog.

Protocol Fundamentals – Traceroute differences between Windows and Linux

My last post about Traceroute got some interesting conversation going on in the comments. Basically there is quite a big difference in the way in which Windows and Linux handle traceroute. I tested on both Windows 7 and Ubuntu 10.04, but my guess is that all Windows follow the same format as do all *nix’s (please let me know if otherwise though!) I would recommend reading the above post again quickly to get all the basics out the way before we delve into the differences. Step-wise, this is what happens on Windows: The OS send a DNS PTR request to 1.

Protocol Fundamentals – traceroute

Traceroute is a powerful tool. Extremely useful when checking the path of a packet through the network. But how does it ACTUALLY work? What is REALLY going on? Layer3 packets all have a TTL. A Time To Live. If a router receives a packet with a TTL of 1 (and the packet is addresses to a host not directly connected to this router) it will drop the packet. It will also then create an ICMP error packet and send it back to the original source of the packet to let it know that the address was unreachable this time. If you ping another machine, the OS will generally create a TTL of 255 for sent packets, though it doesn’t HAVE to be 255.

Protocol Fundamentals – ARP

What is ARP and how does it actually work? I’m surprised at the amount of people who don’t know exactly what it does and how important it is. To illustrate, I’m going to use this extremely simple network: Both of these systems are really just connected to a home router. Remember that these ports are really just switched ports. The only time they traverse a layer3 port is when they are sending traffic outside the local LAN. ARP is the Address Resolution Protocol. Essentially all it does is resolve a logical IP address to a physical Hardware (MAC) address. In the above diagram, if 10.

Access-lists vs Prefix-lists

The main purpose of this post is to show how prefix lists work and how to decipher them vs regular access lists. Access-lists do a great job on Cisco devices, not just for security but all kinds of route filtering, QoS, and so on. A prefix list is a bit different form an access-list, and it’s important to know the differences and when to use either. I’ve created the following simple topology to illustrate what I’m going to be doing. There are 2 routers, both running BGP. Router1 will have numerous loopbacks with IP addresses that will be advertised into the BGP process.