Native vlan subinterfaces

On July 27, 2012, in CCIE, by Darren

The subinterface is an invaluable tool in your belt. I pretty must use subinterfaces whenever I connect routers to each other via ethernet, even if initially they are only going to have a single point-to-point connection to each other.

Why? Well a subinterface allows you to stick a dot1q header on your frames. Just like running a trunk between 2 switches, it allows you to run multiple logical links between 2 routers. As noted above, even if you only have a single point-to-point connection between 2 routers I still run them. In the past I’ve had to change or add to a design. If I was running just the physical interfaces and needed to change it, I would require downtime and possibly even going to site to actually reconfigure the CPE device. If I used subinterfaces from the start I can just add another subinterface to the mix. There is ways to get around this though.

You can also mix regular and subiterfaces together on the same interface. You can also tag a subinterface as the native vlan. Let’s look at a couple of different examples and see what we see.

dot1qnative Native vlan subinterfaces

Let’s just start with a simple physical interface setup.
R1:

interface FastEthernet0/0
 ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0

R2:

interface FastEthernet0/0
 ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0
R1#ping 192.168.1.2

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 4/25/68 ms

dot1qnative 11 Native vlan subinterfaces

Let’s say now that for whatever reason we need to run another logical link between these 2 routers. Let’s also say that R2 happens to be on the other side of the country and we need to do this now. Well I did note above that there is a workaround for this as you can run both a physical and subinterface on the router at the same time. Let’s leave the above config in and add this:
R1:

interface FastEthernet0/0.10
 encapsulation dot1Q 10
 ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
interface FastEthernet0/0.10
 encapsulation dot1Q 10
 ip address 10.0.0.2 255.255.255.0
R1#ping 10.0.0.2 repeat 1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 1, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.0.0.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
!
Success rate is 100 percent (1/1), round-trip min/avg/max = 28/28/28 ms
R1#ping 192.168.1.2 repeat 1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 1, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
!
Success rate is 100 percent (1/1), round-trip min/avg/max = 24/24/24 ms

Both still work. Now you could log onto R2 via the 10.0.0.2 link and remove the 192.168.1.0/24 address if you wanted without worry. Wireshark shows traffic going over the physical interface has no dot1q tag, while the subinterface has a dot1q tag of 10:
dot1qnative 2 Native vlan subinterfaces
dot1qnative 3 Native vlan subinterfaces

Now let’s mix it up a bit. I can say that a subinterface is tagged with the native vlan. i.e. no vlan tag:
R1:

interface FastEthernet0/0.20
 encapsulation dot1Q 20 native
 ip address 20.20.20.1 255.255.255.0

R2:

interface FastEthernet0/0
 ip address 20.20.20.2 255.255.255.0 secondary
 ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0
R1#ping 20.20.20.2 repeat 1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 1, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 20.20.20.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
!
Success rate is 100 percent (1/1), round-trip min/avg/max = 24/24/24 ms

dot1qnative 4 Native vlan subinterfaces

On R1 I created a subinterface with the native vlan. On R2 I added a secondary IP address. Traffic for the 20.20.20.0/24 range goes over the wire without a dot1q tag. Why not just use a secondary address? Well you can stick a subinterface into a vrf, while you can’t do that with a secondary address. Your IGP behavior also changes somewhat.

I don’t quite like doing the above though. I don’t like have layer2 seperation between networks that should be separated. However it proves the point that a native subinterface’s traffic outbound is exactly the same format as a physical interface. Just a standard ethernet layer2 header with no dot1q tag.

There is another advantage to using a native subinterface. If I want to shut down the link for 20.20.20.0/24, on R1 I can shut down the subinterface. All other subinterfaces stay up. If I do this on R2 however, all subinterfaces go down:
R1:

R1(config)#int fa0/0.20
R1(config-subif)#shut
R1(config-subif)#end
R1#
*Mar  1 00:33:31.023: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console
R1#sh ip int brief
Interface                  IP-Address      OK? Method Status                Protocol
FastEthernet0/0            192.168.1.1     YES manual up                    up
FastEthernet0/0.10         10.0.0.1        YES manual up                    up
FastEthernet0/0.20         20.20.20.1      YES manual administratively down down
R2(config)#int fa0/0
R2(config-if)#shut
R2(config-if)#end
R2#
*Mar  1 00:34:51.955: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console
R2#sh ip int
*Mar  1 00:34:53.347: %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to administratively down
*Mar  1 00:34:54.347: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to down
R2#sh ip int brief
Interface                  IP-Address      OK? Method Status                Protocol
FastEthernet0/0            192.168.1.2     YES manual administratively down down
FastEthernet0/0.10         10.0.0.2        YES manual administratively down down

So while the native subinterface and physical interface send traffic the same, I can shut a native subinterface without affecting any other subinterface, while the shutting down of a physical interface shuts down all the subinterfaces attached to it

Now let’s get deeper…

R1:

interface FastEthernet0/0.10
 encapsulation dot1Q 10 native
 ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0

R2:

interface FastEthernet0/0.10
 encapsulation dot1Q 10
 ip address 10.10.10.2 255.255.255.0

Here I have R1 configured with a native subinterface, while R2 is configured with a dot1q header of 10. You would expect there would be no communication between them, but you would be incorrect. I’m going to turn on debug ip packet on both routers for this to see who sees what
R1:

R1#ping 10.10.10.2 repeat 1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 1, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.10.10.2, timeout is 2 seconds:

*Mar  1 00:08:07.763: IP: tableid=0, s=10.10.10.1 (local), d=10.10.10.2 (FastEthernet0/0.10), routed via FIB
*Mar  1 00:08:07.763: IP: s=10.10.10.1 (local), d=10.10.10.2 (FastEthernet0/0.10), len 100, sending.
Success rate is 0 percent (0/1)

dot1qnative 5 Native vlan subinterfaces
So the ping failed, but look more closely. R1 was able to encapsulate the packet, which means it has a MAC address. Let’s look at the ARP table:

R1#sh arp
Protocol  Address          Age (min)  Hardware Addr   Type   Interface
Internet  10.10.10.1              -   c200.3e78.0000  ARPA   FastEthernet0/0.10
Internet  10.10.10.2              2   c201.3e78.0000  ARPA   FastEthernet0/0.10

Let’s try the other way around now.
R2:

R2#ping 10.10.10.1 repeat 1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 1, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.10.10.1, timeout is 2 seconds:

*Mar  1 00:11:20.807: IP: tableid=0, s=10.10.10.2 (local), d=10.10.10.1 (FastEthernet0/0.10), routed via RIB
*Mar  1 00:11:20.811: IP: s=10.10.10.2 (local), d=10.10.10.1 (FastEthernet0/0.10), len 100, sending
*Mar  1 00:11:20.815: IP: s=10.10.10.2 (local), d=10.10.10.1 (FastEthernet0/0.10), len 100, encapsulation failed.
Success rate is 0 percent (0/1)

dot1qnative 6 Native vlan subinterfaces
Let’s have a look at the ARP cache:

R2#sh arp
Protocol  Address          Age (min)  Hardware Addr   Type   Interface
Internet  10.10.10.1              0   Incomplete      ARPA
Internet  10.10.10.2              -   c201.3e78.0000  ARPA   FastEthernet0/0.10

Somehow R1 learned R2′s MAC address so communication was there, but it seems it’s only one way. Let’s clear the ARP cache on both and debug ARP to see what happens.

The first thing you notice when you clear the ARP cache is that the local router will send a gratuitous ARP out to let everyone else know about it. Let’s see what we see on R1 when we clear R2′s cache:
R2:

R2#clear arp
R2#
*Mar  1 00:18:45.135: ARP: flushing ARP entries for all interfaces
*Mar  1 00:18:45.143: IP ARP: sent rep src 10.10.10.2 c201.3e78.0000,
                 dst 10.10.10.2 ffff.ffff.ffff FastEthernet0/0.10

R1:

R1#
*Mar  1 00:18:31.231: IP ARP: rcvd rep src 10.10.10.2 c201.3e78.0000, dst 10.10.10.2 FastEthernet0/0.10

R1 receives this gratuitous ARP and installs the MAC address into it’s ARP cache. Wireshark shows that R2 is sending this gratuitous ARP with a dot1q tag:
dot1qnative 7 Native vlan subinterfaces

What about the other way?
R1:

R1#clear arp
R1#
*Mar  1 00:20:53.847: ARP: flushing ARP entries for all interfaces
*Mar  1 00:20:53.855: IP ARP: sent rep src 10.10.10.1 c200.3e78.0000,
                 dst 10.10.10.1 ffff.ffff.ffff FastEthernet0/0.10

R2:

R2#
*Mar  1 00:21:07.831: IP ARP rep filtered src 10.10.10.1 c200.3e78.0000, dst 10.10.10.1 ffff.ffff.ffff wrong cable, interface FastEthernet0/0

dot1qnative 8 Native vlan subinterfaces

R2 complains that this ARP is coming in on ‘the wrong cable’ while wireshark shows the gratuitous ARP being sent without a dot1q header as expected.

What can we get from this? Well if you have a native subinterface, it will accept both untagged AND tagged frames in the vlan, vlan 10 in my example above. However it will only SEND untagged traffic. Good to know. It can also explain why you sometimes see an ARP entry on one side, while not on the other.

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Fun with QinQ

On July 4, 2012, in Brocade, CCIE, Design, by Darren

Not all service providers have blanket coverage of an entire country. When a service provider gives service to a customer, more than likely the customer will be using a line from an external carrier of the ISP’s choosing.

Metro Ethernet is becoming more and more common these days and it does give us as designers a lot of flexibility. However each time a customer purchases a leased line, that requires another port in your core. That’s fine if the circuit is a nice gig, but quite often a lot of office will have anything from 2Mb to 1Gb. Do you really want to waste your core gig ports for a 2Mb circuit? Not really.

A lot of carriers are now offering aggregated ethernet links. Essentially this means that each customer site has a separate port (of course) but these are all aggregated when the carrier hands off to us. We get a single link carrying a bunch of customer circuits. Now you can sell hundreds of 2Mb circuits and only use a single port.
QinQ VPLS 1 Fun with QinQ

But how do we separate traffic then? Well you’ll come to an agreement with the carrier and each circuit ordered will have a vlan tag on the core side. This means customer 1 site 1′s traffic will arrive on vlan 1000. customer2 site 1′s traffic will arrive on vlan 1001. Now you just need to stick each tag into an MPLS solution and all is good.
QinQ VPLS 2 Fun with QinQ

But now what happens when you need to run multiple virtual circuits to a single customer site over their leased line? The vlan tag is already used by the carrier. What if I need to run 2 vrf’s for the customer and I need a WAN interface in each vrf?

We could do QinQ, but let’s think about this. In order to do QinQ I need another device at the customer site to pop another vlan tag on. I then need to get that tag into the core, pop off the tag and stick it back into the core. This could get messy.
Another problem with regular Cisco switches is that I can only do dot1q encapsulation on a port based. This means I need to use a port for every customer again, negating the advantage of the aggregated port to begin with. Or I can send traffic to another switch on a per-port basis, then get the second switch to aggregate the vlans back into the core. This will work, but what a nightmare to support.
Option1:
QinQ VPLS 3 Fun with QinQ

Option2:
QinQ VPLS 4 Fun with QinQ

Instead of a regular switch I could use a ME3400G and do selective QinQ. This allows me to specify that vlan 10 and 20 gets vlan 1000 popped onto it, and vlan 15 and 25, on the same port, gets vlan 1001 popped onto it.

It’s still another device that we could do without.

Let’s tackle the problem at the customer site first. Ideally I would like to do away with a separate device that does my QinQ. I can’t send double-tagged frames directly out my Cisco. Are we sure about this?

interface GigabitEthernet0/1.500
 encapsulation dot1Q 1000 second-dot1q 500
 ip address 172.16.255.1 255.255.255.0
end

The second-dot1q command allows you to both send and receive QinQ traffic directly from a router interface. The first tag is the metro tag, while the second tag is the inner tag. Let’s create another interface in another vrf.

interface GigabitEthernet0/1.600
 encapsulation dot1Q 1000 second-dot1q 600
 ip vrf forwarding 1
 ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0

Perfect. I can create as many sub-interfaces as I need using a single metro tag.

What about my core? In my core I’m using Brocade Netirons. Let’s see if I can terminate a double-tagged frame:

vpls Test_Customer 500
  vpls-peer 192.168.1.1
   vlan 1000 inner-vlan 500
   tagged ethe 15/1
!
 vpls Test_Customer 600
  vpls-peer 192.168.1.50
   vlan 1000 inner-vlan 600
   tagged ethe 15/1

No problems there. I can create 2 completely separate VPLS instances using the same single metro tag.

So far so good…

Let’s say for whatever reason I now need to run a point-to-point link directly from my core to the CPE at the customer site. I don’t want to terminate this point-to-point link into a VLL/VPLS. This could be for management, to provide voice or internet access, whatever. Unfortunately my Brocade device cannot terminate a double-tagged frame both in the local table as well as in a VPLS. Now we’re close to going back to our earlier switch examples to pop off that pesky outer tag.

But never fear, there is always a way. I did note above that we can’t terminate a double-tagged frame on both. How about sending some traffic as double-tagged and certain traffic as single? Can we do this?

Let’s start again with the CPE and show the full relevant config:

interface GigabitEthernet0/1.1000
 encapsulation dot1Q 1000
 ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/1.600
 encapsulation dot1Q 1000 second-dot1q 600
 ip vrf forwarding 1
 ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/1.500
 encapsulation dot1Q 1000 second-dot1q 500
 ip address 172.16.255.1 255.255.255.0

Works just fine on the Cisco. What about my Brocade?

vlan 1000 name Test
 tagged ethe 15/1
 router-interface ve 1000
!
interface ve 1000
 ip address 10.0.0.2/24
!
router mpls
!
vpls Test_Customer 500
  vpls-peer 192.168.1.1
   vlan 1000 inner-vlan 500
   tagged ethe 15/1
!
 vpls Test_Customer 600
  vpls-peer 192.168.1.50
   vlan 1000 inner-vlan 600
   tagged ethe 15/1

Everything tested and everything works perfectly. We’ve managed to remove all kinds of kit and also managed to simply the solution.

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Protocol fundamentals – dot1q

On April 23, 2011, in CCIE, Fundamentals, by Darren

I’ve noticed that a lot of people seem to get confused with what exactly dot1q is doing most of the time. It’s actually incredibly simply.

Tagging traffic, or Trunking in Cisco-talk, is a very straightforward process. I will not be discussing ISL here as not only do I not use it, but Cisco is phasing it out on their stuff anyway.

The dot1q tag is simply inserted into the layer2 header when a packet leaves a switchport over a trunk. If a frame leaves a switchport that is not a trunk, there is no dot1a tag inserted into it, regardless of what vlan the frame came from or is going to. This means that the following is a perfectly valid topology:
dot1qex1 Protocol fundamentals   dot1q
Let’s configure the above quickly.

3560TOP#conf t
Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.
3560TOP(config)#int range fa0/1, fa0/8
3560TOP(config-if-range)#switchport mode access
3560TOP(config-if-range)#switchport access vlan 10
% Access VLAN does not exist. Creating vlan 10
C3550#conf t
Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.
C3550(config)#int range fa0/1, fa0/8
C3550(config-if-range)#switchport mode access
C3550(config-if-range)#switchport access vlan 20
% Access VLAN does not exist. Creating vlan 20

Can the PC’s ping each other?

PC2#ping 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 4/10/28 ms
PC1#ping 10.1.1.2

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 4/4/8 ms

They both can ping each other. But aren’t the devices in different vlans? They sure are, yet they can still communicate. Why is this?

The issue is that the switch interlink are both access ports. An access port will not send or accept tagged traffic. Hence when SW1 sends PC1′s traffic over the link, the tag is removed. When that packet comes into SW2′s fa0/8 interface, that interface is part of vlan 20. SW2 will allow that frame to flow to PC2. The same happens vice-versa.

Let’s change the topology so that there is a trunk instead between the 2 switches. I also want to force the use of dot1q.

C3550#conf t
Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.
C3550(config)#default interface fa0/8
Interface FastEthernet0/8 set to default configuration
3560TOP#conf t
Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.
3560TOP(config)#default interface fa0/8
Interface FastEthernet0/8 set to default configuration
3560TOP(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q

Now can the PC’s ping each other?

PC2#ping 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
.....
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)

They cannot. It now works as expected SW1 now sends PC1′s frame over the link with a dot1q tag. In that tag is the vlan id of 10. When it gets to SW2, it’ll look at that tag and ensure the frame is not sent out any access port that is not in vlan 10.

Another important part of dot1q is the notion of a native vlan. The native vlan does not get tagged over a trunk unless you configure otherwise. Vlan1 is the default native vlan.

So let’s try something here. Let’s configure SW1 to think that vlan 10 is the native vlan, while on SW2 let’s change it to vlan20. Will my PC’s be able to ping each other?

3560TOP(config)#int fa0/8
3560TOP(config-if)#switchport trunk native vlan 10
*Mar  1 00:13:42.385: %SPANTREE-2-RECV_PVID_ERR: Received BPDU with inconsistent peer vlan id 1 on FastEthernet0/8 VLAN10.
*Mar  1 00:13:42.385: %SPANTREE-2-BLOCK_PVID_PEER: Blocking FastEthernet0/8 on VLAN0001. Inconsistent peer vlan.
*Mar  1 00:13:42.385: %SPANTREE-2-BLOCK_PVID_LOCAL: Blocking FastEthernet0/8 on VLAN0010. Inconsistent local vlan.
*Mar  1 00:14:13.389: %SPANTREE-2-UNBLOCK_CONSIST_PORT: Unblocking FastEthernet0/8 on VLAN0001. Port consistency restored.
*Mar  1 00:14:19.270: %CDP-4-NATIVE_VLAN_MISMATCH: Native VLAN mismatch discovered on FastEthernet0/8 (10), with C3550 FastEthernet0/8 (20).

I’ve done the same on SW2, but for vlan 20. You can see that the switch is giving me all kinds of error messages.

However I cannot ping between my PCs:

PC2#ping 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
.....
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)

I tried disabling CDP, hard coding the trunk between the 2 switches and also disabling negotiation between the 2 links but no communication at all. Even though it should work theoretically, the switches just do not like the native vlan not matching on either side of the link

I was not happy with the outcome above, so I dug a little deeper. It seems STP is blocking communication. The BPDU’s still carry vlan information with them. What I’ve done on both switches is disable STP on vlans 10 and 20 on both switches:

3560TOP(config)#no spanning-tree vlan 10,20

Can I now ping?

PC2#ping 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 4/4/8 ms

Indeed I can. So even though there is a trunk between the 2 switches and both devices are in separate vlans, they can still communicate as SW1 and SW2 both think that the native vlan matches on each side. They have no idea that PC1 is in vlan 10 and PC2 is in vlan 20.

I don’t much like leaving the native vlan untagged. Thankfully we have an option to tag all frames:

3560TOP(config)#vlan dot1q tag native
C3550(config)#vlan dot1q tag native

What this does is essentially ignore the native vlan setting. All traffic, regardless of vlan, will be tagged over the link. This is proven by the fact I can now no longer ping again:

PC2#ping 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
.....
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)

It’s important to note that an untagged frame is identical to a frame that goes in and out of an access port. There is no difference. To prove this I’m going to put both PC1 and PC2 into vlan 10, and them create a trunk link to PC1. PC1 does not understand trunk links and will continue to send regular traffic. I’ll configure SW1 to untag the native vlan again and make vlan 10 the native vlan. Will this work?

3560TOP(config)#int fa0/8
3560TOP(config-if)#no switchport trunk native vlan 10
3560TOP(config-if)#exit
3560TOP(config)#no vlan dot1q tag native
3560TOP(config)#int fa0/1
3560TOP(config-if)#switchport trunk encap dot
3560TOP(config-if)#switch mode trunk
3560TOP(config-if)#switchport trunk native vlan 10

Can PC1 ping PC2?

PC1#ping 10.1.1.2

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 4/6/16 ms

It sure can. PC1 is simply sending untagged traffic off to SW1. SW1 assumes that untagged traffic is part of vlan10 and forwards those frames throughout vlan 10. This goes over the trunk to SW2, and sends those frames over the vlan10 access ports where it gets to PC2.

Of course routers and some servers can also send tagged traffic. Let’s change PC1 so that it sends out tagged traffic. Let’s change SW1 back to the regular native vlan on port fa0/1

3560TOP(config)#int fa0/1
3560TOP(config-if)#no switchport trunk native vlan 10
PC1(config)#int fa0/0
PC1(config-if)#no ip address
PC1(config-if)#int fa0/0.1
PC1(config-subif)#encapsulation dot1Q 10
PC1(config-subif)#ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0

Can I ping?

PC1#ping 10.1.1.2

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/4/8 ms

As expected I sure can.

Just like the switches, I can also make any single vlan I choose to be the native vlan. This frame will simply be sent untagged. Let’s change SW1′s fa0/1 interface to an access port again, and change PC1 to continue to use dot1q, but ensure that vlan 10 traffic is untagged:

3560TOP(config)#default interface fa0/1
Interface FastEthernet0/1 set to default configuration
3560TOP(config)#int fa0/1
3560TOP(config-if)#switch mode access
3560TOP(config-if)#switch access vlan 10
PC1(config)#int fa0/0.1
PC1(config-subif)#encapsulation dot1Q 10 native

Ping should still work, does it?

PC1#ping 10.1.1.2

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 4/4/8 ms

As you can see, it’s pretty simple stuff at the end of the day.

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