- When user joins, connected router will have *,G entry, as it knows the group joined by the user, but not the source of that feed yet. This is the SHARED tree.
- The RP WILL have an S,G entry. Once the router connects it will stay on the *,G shared tree at first, then switch over to the S,G source tree.
- While on the shared tree, the RPF check will be towards the RP, NOT the source! This will change to the source once the router connects to the source tree
- ip pim spt threshold controls when the router will switch from the *,G to the S,G tree. A value of infinity means it’ll NEVER switch to the S,G tree
- In dense mode you’ll always see S,G entries as the source has been flooded through the network. i.e. all PIM routers will already have the feed, and hence will know the source
- Sparse-dense mode is mainly like sparse mode, but any group that cannot be registered with the RP becomes dense mode
- This is good for Auto-RP, but it also means that mis-configurations on the RP could cause lots of groups to be dense mode instead of sparse mode
- You need to run PIM on the interface that you are advertising as the RP. i.e if you’re running it on a loopback interface, run PIM on that loopback!
- Auto assignments OVERRIDE static assignments! You can use ip pim rp-address (rp_address) (acl) override to override this default behaviour
- Easiest to configure, pretty much like a static route
- ip pim rp-address (rp_address) (acl)
- (acl) determines what groups the router will be the RP for
- The RP router ALSO needs to have the above configured. i.e the RP does not automatically know it is the RP, you need to tell the router that it is!
Auto-RP (Cisco proprietary):
- Auto-RP is made up of 1 or more routers announcing themselves as candidate RPs using the command: ip pim send-rp-announce (acl) as well as a mapping agent using the command: ip pim send-rp-discovery
- Only the mapping agent listens to the RP announcements
- The MA then determines which RP to use for which groups and advertises that to all other PIM routers
- The auto-rp process uses the 18.104.22.168 and 22.214.171.124 groups
- In sparse-dense mode the 2 groups above are automatically in dense mode
- If running sparse mode only, you need to configure ip pim auto-rp listener on transit PIM interfaces which will ensure that ONLY 126.96.36.199 and 188.8.131.52 are in dense mode
- If the MA receives 2 announcements from candidate RPs for the same groups, the MA will choose the one with the highest IP address
- The RP and MA can be the same device if needs be
- Auto-RP IS supported by a number of Non Cisco devices. Confirm with proctor is question is not clear
- When specifying an ACL with a RP announcement, the deny statements will create negative entries for groups. However a deny any at the end of the ACL will effectively make ALL groups negative, and hence dense mode, regardless of what’s configured. As an example:
ip pim send-rp-announce Loopback0 scope 15 group-list 12 interval 1
access-list 12 deny 184.108.40.206
access-list 12 permit 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168
access-list 12 deny any
If you check the mapping agent you see this:
Group(s) (-)22.214.171.124/4 RP 126.96.36.199 (?), v2v1 Info source: 188.8.131.52 (?), elected via Auto-RP
Once the deny statement at the end of the ACL is removed, you see this:
Group(s) 184.108.40.206/4 RP 220.127.116.11 (?), v2v1 Info source: 18.104.22.168 (?), elected via Auto-RP
Bootstrap router – BSR (Open standard)
- BSR uses the group 22.214.171.124, but it does NOT need to be in dense mode, unlike auto-rp
- 126.96.36.199 is the link-local ALL PIM ROUTERS address as well
- The Bootstrap router is the Mapping Agent in auto-rp, configured using: ip pim bsr-candidate (int) (hash) (pri)
- The RP uses the same name as in auto-rp, configured using: ip pim rp-candidate (int) (ttl) (pri) (acl)
- The hash field will allow you to load balance groups over your RPs – A hash value of 31 ensures all even groups are with on RP and odds are with another, if you have 2 RPs
- You can see which group is mapped to which RP with show ip pim rp-hash (group)
- BSR has priority fields so you can choose which router does what without having to rely on the high IP taking over
- If priority is the same, then highest IP will be chosen like auto-rp
- ip pim bsr-border will allow you to run PIM on an edge interface, but not to share bsr messages
Multicast on Frame-Relay:
- By default, multicast traffic is process switched over frame-relay. Multicast frames also have the pak-priority set so have the highest priority
- If you have a hub router connected to 2 spokes over the same interface, you’ll have problem with RPF checks as you are going in and out the same interface. You can also have problem where a spoke says it no longer wants to receive a feed, this would make the hun stop sending to ALL spokes.
- ip pim nbma-mode fixes both of the above issues. When configuring nbma mode on sparse-dense and dense mode interfaces you’ll get a warning, but it’ll still work.
- int# ip multicast-boundry will stop multicast packets getting through an interface.
- Any address ALLOWED through the acl is ALLOWED through the interface
- The boundry is bidirectional by default. If you specify the IN option it will prevent multicast control traffic coming into the interface. If you specify the OUT option it will prevent the interface from being added to the OIL
- Prevent routers from fully participating in PIM. Consider the diagram:
- R2 has users on the Fa0/0 interface that want to join the multicast feed. However you do not want R2 to fully run PIM. In order to do so, you need to have R1 configured to prevent R2 from becoming a PIM neighbour. You need then to configure R2 to forward IGMP join messages to R1. Note that dense mode is configured on R2 as it needs to flood multicast traffic over to fa0/0 when it gets an igmp join.
access-list 1 deny 192.168.1.2
ip pim sparse-mode
ip pim neighbor-filter 1
ip pim dense-mode
ip pim dense-mode
ip igmp helper-address 192.168.1.1
- You can convert multicast to broadcast, and from broadcast to multicast. You can also do this multiple times backwards and forwards if you need to. Consider the following example:
- We have a server with the IP of 172.16.1.25 that is sending out a udp broadcast to port 5000. For whatever reason we need that same frame to be broadcasted onto the 10.50.50.0/24 network.
- To convert from broadcast to multicast you configure like so:
access-list 100 permit udp host 172.16.1.25 any eq 5000
ip forward-protocol udp 5000
ip multicast helper-map broadcast 188.8.131.52 100
- Then back from multicast to broadcast like so:
ip forward-protocol udp 5000
access-list 100 permit udp host 172.16.1.25 any eq 5000
ip multicast helper-map 184.108.40.206 10.50.50.255 100
- MSDP is used for inter-domain multicasting as well as to allow RPs in a single AS to share source information if running anycast RP. All you need to configure on the RPs is:
ip msdp peer (peer_unique_address) connect-source (local_unique_interface)
ip msdp originator-id (unique_address_interface)
- You need to configure ip pim bidir-enable on ALL PIM interfaces. Most RP commands will then have the bidir switch added to the end of commands.
- Sparse mode only
- Enabled using Ipv6 multicast-routing
- When enabled, Pim will run automatically on all ipv6 interfaces. Need to run no ipv6 pim on the interface to remove
- Multicast listener discovery (MLD), part of ICMPv6, replaces igmp
- Mldv1 is equivalent to IGMPv2. Same timers and so on
- Mldv2 equivalent to IGMP3 for ssm
- BSR and Static RP only. No auto-rp. You can also use embedded RP which encodes the RP address in the group address
- sh ipv6 Pim range-list will show you the rp mapping
- ipv6 mld join-group will join a group on an interface
- IPv6 mroute is created using ipv6 route (address/prefix) (next_hop) multicast, NOT ipv6 mroute
- Pretty much everything else is the same as ipv4
- PIM assert will take the Administrative Distance into account first, and then metric if that AD matches. So in order to force a router to be the PIM assert router, you may need to adjust the AD
- ip pim accept-rp (acl) will ensure the RP only accepts *,G joins for groups defined in the ACL. In theory you only need to put this on the RP, but it’s more efficient to put it on all routers so they drop the requests before it even gets to the RP
- int#ip igmp (acl) is used to allow only joins to certain groups through an interface. This interface is pointing towards the receivers as the control packet is igmp
- int#ip igmp limit is used to limit the amount of igmp states on an interface. Can also configure this globally
- When configuring source specific multicast, you are required to configure ip pim ssm default or ip pim ssm (acl) on all PIM routers to ensure they do not create *,G entries. SSM does not actually need an RP as they do not connect to shared trees, only source trees.
- On an ethernet segment a DR will be chosen between the PIM neighbours. By default, the priority is 1. If the priority is the same, the highest IP wins. This can be changed with the int#ip pim dr-priority command. Note that not all switches support this command!
- If your IGP is load-balancing certain paths, you can load-balanse multicast as well with the ip multicast multipath command. This is essential so that your rpf checks don’t fail.
So I got my report back, and I failed :( - 52/100
I passed the troubleshooting section with a single point to spare, but screwed up on the configuration section. I can easily see where I went wrong. I need to read, and re-read these questions again as most of my points loss was down to silly mistakes! In the IPv6 section I configured an address slightly wrong (CC1E instead of CC:1E) and so lost ALL the marks for the entire IPv6 section because of it :(
Also there were a couple of questions where I could’ve verified something with the proctor, but there is no online proctor in the mock exam.
However, there were a couple of parts where I did not know how to configure it. My weak points (STILL) is multicasting and services. I think it’s time to hit the books again on those subjects and do the entire INE Vol1 chapters for those sections.
I have another exam near the end of January and so hopefully will do much better on that one :)
It’s not the end of the world. The mock has exposed weaknesses. But I’d rather air that dirty laundry now than on lab day :)
Update: This is the score report btw:
5 points gone because of this:
INE have a total of 7 mock labs. Level 7 is considered the same difficulty as the real lab, and anything above that is more difficult.
I’ve scheduled Lab3, which has a difficulty rating of 7. I’ve scheduled Lab5 (difficulty 8) at the end of January, but that might move around still.
This should give me a taste of the real lab, and also let me know how I’m doing. It doesn’t matter whether I pass or fail as it’ll just show me where I’m still struggling.
I start in 2 hours, time for a coffee and a quick breakfast!
You learn to both create ACLs as well as how to subnet while you’re learning for your CCNA. You also may learn about wildcard masks and how to configure them. Wildcard masks are a lot more powerful than they lead you to believe. They are NOT simply inverted subnet masks. A wildcard mask can be used to pretty much match any value you so desire in a subnet address.
As an example take 192.168.0.0 0.0.0.20 – This matches either 192.168.0.4; 192.168.0.16 or 192.168.0.20 – How else could you match 3 non-consecutive addresses in a single line?
So, how do we actually create them? Let’s say you’re given a task which states that you have the following few address: 220.127.116.11; 18.104.22.168 and 22.214.171.124
Write them all out in binary like so:
126.96.36.199 - 11011001.11000100.00110000.00110011 188.8.131.52 - 11001000.10010110.00000011.00000101 184.108.40.206 - 10011011.10000111.00010010.00001011
Line up all the binary. You need to do a bit of logic. If all 3 values are 1, put a 1 in. If all 3 are 0, put a 0 in. If any of the digits in the 3 numbers are different, put an X in like so:
11011001.11000100.00110000.00110011 11001000.10010110.00000011.00000101 10011011.10000111.00010010.00001011 ----------------------------------- 1X0X10XX.1XXX11X0.00XX00XX.00XXXXX1
We are now left with 1X0X10XX.1XXX11X0.00XX00XX.00XXXXX1 – Now convert back to binary. X’s can be anything, but to make it easier I consider them to be 0 for now.
1X0X10XX.1XXX11X0.00XX00XX.00XXXXX1 = 220.127.116.11
To now work out the wildcard mask, ensure every X is a 1, while all others are 0:
1X0X10XX.1XXX11X0.00XX00XX.00XXXXX1 = 01010011.01110010.00110011.00111110 = 18.104.22.168
So therefore, to match the 3 original addresses in a single line with minimum overlap we would use the subnet address of 22.214.171.124 with a wildcard mask of 126.96.36.199
Basically what we’re trying to do is tell the IOS that anything in the X above could be any digit. i.e. X could be a 0 or 1. The numbers we are sure of will get a 0. This tells IOS that it HAS to match the subnet address in this part of the byte.
If we take the first octet above we can break it down.
136 with a wildcard mask of 83
136 - 10001000 83 - 01010011
This tells IOS that the first bit HAS to be 1; the third bit HAS to be 0; the fifth bit HAS to be 1 and the sixth bit HAS to be 0. All the other bits can be anything at all, in any combination. So a wildcard 0 HAS to match, a wilcard 1 can mean anything.
Hence the term ‘wildcard’
It takes a little bit of time and practice to get good at it, just like regular subnetting when you started out. Once you understand what it is you’re looking at, it’s not that hard :)